The pan-European Stoxx 600 provisionally closed down 0.85 percent, with all but one sector closing in the red. Media eked out slight gains, closing up 0.09 percent.
The FTSE 100 sank 1.30 percent, weighed down by the miners, while France's CAC 40 slipped 0.98 percent and Germany's DAX dropped 1.15 percent.
Washington and Beijing's political sparring marks the latest escalation in tensions between the world's two largest economies, with investors increasingly concerned about an ongoing trade conflict. Basic resources stocks — with their heavy exposure to China — led the losses in Europe on Friday. Antofagasta, Anglo American and Rio Tinto were all trading down 3 percent or more in trade.
Looking at individual stocks, Denmark's Danske Bank tumbled to the bottom of the European benchmark on Friday, down some 7 percent in trade. The move comes after Credit Suisse cut its rating to "neutral" from "outperform" and following recent news that it faces a U.S. criminal investigation into a 200 billion euro ($230.1 billion) money laundering scandal at its Estonian branch. Denmark's biggest bank has lost a third of its value so far this year.
Sticking with weak European performers, Scout24 sank 5.5 percent, after HSBC slashed its target price and rating on the German-listed stock from "buy" to "hold". Meanwhile, Britain's Hammerson surged towards the top of the index, up 4 percent after Credit Suisse upgraded its stock recommendation to "outperform" from "underperform."
Elsewhere, shares of Unilever were under slight pressure after the consumer goods firm announced that its board had withdrawn its proposal to relocate to the Netherlands, following a growing wave of opposition from U.K. shareholders.
U.S. stocks were mixed at the Wall Street open following the news, as job creation for September fell to its lowest level in a year while the unemployment rate sank to a level that hasn't been seen in close to 50 years.
Market focus remains largely attuned to the recent moves in U.S. bond yields, which have climbed in recent days following robust economic data that exacerbated concerns about inflation and the risk of faster-than-expected interest rate hikes. The yield on the benchmark 10-year note surged to a more than seven-year high on Thursday.
Closer to home, Italy's anti-establishment government has announced its new strategy to financial policy: a "brave and responsible" initiative, ending weeks of speculation about its spending plans. The FTSE MIB was lower on Friday.